Many biological processes require various cells to work together and to coordinate their activities. To make this possible, cells have to communicate with each other, which is accomplished by a process called cell signaling. Cell signaling makes it possible for cells to respond in an appropriate manner to a specific environmental stimulus.
Cell signaling transduction refers to the process in which information carried by extracellular messenger molecules is translated into changes that occur inside a cell. Cell signaling transduction involves a series of molecular events that detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, or ion-channel activity. Cell signaling transductions are the basic mechanisms of many vital physical processes This chapter is mainly about the molecules and processes related with cell signaling transduction. you also have access to the bioreagents (proteins, antibodies, genes and ELISA kits) produced by Sino biological in each section.
As mentioned above, multiple vital processes with numerous molecular circuits are involved in cell signaling transduction.
1) The process begins with reactions between extracellular messenger molecules and their receptors, such as growth factors (EGF, FGF, PDGF, VEGF, TGF-beta, Wnt, e. g.) and growth factor receptors (RTKs, e. g.), extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules like integrin in cell adhesion signaling, neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors. In neuroscience, ion channels and transporters play important roles in signaling.
2) Then signals are transmitted within cells by second messengers or protein kinases (protein phosphorylation)
3) After signaling transduction within cells, cell responses are regulated, such as changes happening on transcription factors.
These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling many pivotal processes, such as cell growth, proliferation,apoptosis autophagy, aging, and metabolism, click to know more:
? Berg JM, et al. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. Chapter 15, Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism.
? Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Signaling Molecules and Their Receptors.