CD86, also known as B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7-2 (referred to as B7), is a member of the cell surface immunoglobulin superfamily. B7-2 exists predominantly as a monomer on cell surfaces and interacts with two co-stimulatory receptors CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expressed on T cells, and thus induces the signal pathways which regulate T cell activation and tolerance, cytokine production, and the generation of CTL. It is indicated that contacts between B and T helper cells mediated by CD86 encourage signals for the proliferation and IgG secretion of normal B cells and B cell lymphomas. Recent study has revealed that CD86 also promotes the generation of a mature APC repertoire and promotes APC function and survival. CD86 has an important role in chronic hemodialysis, allergic pulmonary inflammation, arthritis, and antiviral responses, and thus is regarded as a promising candidate for immune therapy.